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Nasal and Sinonasal Cavities
Tumors may grow in the area behind the nose where air passes to the throat, known as the nasal cavity, or in the various sinus cavities around the nose. The nasal cavity that sits on top of the cheek area is called the maxillary sinuses, and it is the most common location of sinonasal cancer.
Several types of cancer may grow in the nasal and sinonasal cavities. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the most common. Squamous cell carcinoma affects cells that form the lining of the nasal structures, while adenocarcinoma begins in gland cells.
Far less common (about one percent), but fast growing, is malignant melanoma. Inverting papilloma begin as benign growths, however they may develop into the more common squamous cell carcinoma.
Esthesioneuroblastoma occurs in the cells of the nerves that control the sense of smell. This cancer is located on the roof of the nasal cavity and may resemble neuroendocrine cancer. Midline granuloma happens when healthy tissue begins to breakdown due to a variety of causes or difficulties with the immune system. And finally, lymph tissue lines the nasal and sinonasal cavities and may become cancerous. This is known as lymphoma.